hello everyone i am GujHealth so today we are going to deal with disease kala-azar what is it what are symptoms how it is caused and what is its treatment and prevention and and all about.so let’s move ahead now coming through the initial introduction.
Kala Azar In India
Kala Azar Introduction
Now kala-azar is a disease caused by a parasite of genus Leishmania and in india Lakshmana Donovan is the only parasite causing this disease.now it is a protozoan parasite photo zones are single-celled you carry odds
endemic means for indigenous means it is native that it was originated here only fine now this Manya Donovan II is the scientific name it came from two scientists who have discovered this parasite Leishmania was discovered by William lachemann while treating a salt soldier who died from this disease
first of all it was identified in just so Bangladesh and this soldier died in dum-dum so it is also called dum-dum fever dum-dum fever fine should remember that now it is also called visceral leishmaniasis it is called visceral because these disease affects the internal organs of human body so it is a major health risk around the country especially in the eastern states that I will deal later later which are those states so it is most neglected vector-borne disease most neglected you should remember it is most neglected so the carrier or vector of this parasite is sandfly of genus phlebotomist organ types this is the scientific name of sign fly sand am now scientific names
consist of genus and species this is genus phlebotomist urgent types is species similarly Leishmania is genus donivans is species in
Africa also this disease is this by this same parasite Leishmania Donna money but is same species but in America and southern Europe the species different it is lish Manya in phantom in phantom Orchard Rossi in fact lachemann eh agassi it is also called fine so humans are the only reservoir of infection it is called anthropomorphic that is only humans are infected by this sand fly or bitten by the sand fide through which that person is transferred.
which is a vector vector means mieze which carries the parasite sanctify the small intercept is 1/4th of the size of the mosquito,
length : length is only 1.5 to 3.5 mm very small in size.
so you can’t even identify easily that where it is so it has erect large wings them long hairs completely covering the body fine so
life cycle : consists of egg larva pupa adult so this is called do you know what this is called this is called metamorphosis similar thing happens in case of better butterfly that is changing from one stage to another till it reaches the adult stage fine so the whole cycle takes more than a month and its duration but depends upon the temperature and other ecological conditions.
there should be relative humidity warm temperature high subsoil water and abundance of vegetation that is it more profusely profusely covered area that is where there is more vegetation like tropical rainforest kind of areas this sandflies survives the sand size breed favorable microclimate conditions at is high organic matter and which serve as food for larvae fine and it cannot withstand the situation it cannot grow in dry area so very important it is very fragile so it cannot grow in dry areas
Sign And Symptom
what happens when you get this disease
• Recurrent fever – if here comes again and again and with more intensity.
• Progressive emaciation that is very lean loss of fact then .
• spleen and largest very large spleen becomes the.
• liver also enlarges then bone marrow is also affected .
• light colored person shock Gray’s Disko notion of skin of hands feet and abdomen and that’s why this disease is also called black people ‘kala azar’ Hindi .
• Anemia also develops rapidly in this disease .
• Problem or the growing mortality due to this disease due to its neglected niche in otherwise it would have been eliminated so therefore its remains and addressed in specially rural Hamlet’s
• Environment where I am where these families rural family leaveth have rampant sand flies rampant huge breeding of sand flies there for example mangroves where the sand flies rest.
• So nearby the mangroves the homes or small huts are made of patches roof small like busie that we call that the cow eats that is used to make the roof due to which the sand pie can easily enter and bite the humans so a number of forms have to be made insecticide proof so that they are not able to enter inside.
• There also needs to have been have Supriya of insecticides and bed nets should be there to cover the bamboo and mud plasters that we have in the rural.
How It Can Be Prevented
• Parathyroids sprays: these are the insecticide sprays that we spray inside our homes.
• Moscow Nets Or mature Danny we should create.
• Pentavalent : antimony is a traditional treatment.
• Liposomal amphotericin – B liposomal is kind of a nanoparticle in which I am for terrorism be drug powder or in some other formulation is put and then it is given as a intermuscular injection fine so thank you everyone.
Kala Azar Fact
• 90% of the cases are in India Bangladesh Nepal Sudan and Bhutan sorry Brazil.
• 90% of the cases means out of total 2 lakh to 4 lakh cases.
• 90% are in these five countries.
• We should have a more initiative in these five countries
• in Pakur District in Jharkhand ‘kala azar’ is widespread and it is founded tribal families who do not have a system diagnosis and treatment.
• one more stage of this diseases Post Kala Azar Dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) that is it invades or the parasite invades skin cells and resides and develops there and causes a Dermal Leisions it is kind of a patch of skin witches of different color greyish color because the parasite is growing there.
• it remains unaddressed also if it is not cured properly and also it comes out after one or two years of the normal kala azar ,one or two years after is normal kala azar this (PKDL) or first kala azar Dermal leishmaniasis comes out.
What Is The Extent Of Problem in India
• Nowadays mainly and Namek in Bihar Jharkhand you P and West Bengal.
• 54 districts are endemic of this disease and sporadic cases are reported in some other districts.
• Approximately 165.4 million people are are at risk in these four states and mostly people are from poor socio-economic background who have less no know-how of hygiene and health
• Now I wanted to tell you one more interesting thing is Upendra
Nath Brahmachari was nominated for Nobel Prize in 1929 for discovery of urea sativa mean Whizzer antimony compound which can treat the kala azar’ and post kala azar’ Dermal leishmaniasis